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The Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and Stress and Their Associated Factors among Malaysian Population: Original Research

Original article

Abstrak

Peningkatan prevalens gangguan mental dan kesannya terhadap beban penyakit global ialah kekhuatiran kesihatan awam yang semakin menjadi-jadi. Kajian ini adalah untuk menilai prevalens kemurungan, tekanan dan keresahan dalam kalangan masyarakat Malaysia dengan menggunakan ujian skala Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) dan mengenal pasti perkaitannya dengan skala Belief of Depression Questionnaire (BDQ). Kajian keratan rentas telah dijalankan dalam kalangan masyarakat Malaysia melalui kaedah persampelan mudah dari Oktober hingga Disember 2019. Skala DASS-21 dan BDQ digunakan untuk meneroka tahap kesihatan mental dan kepercayaan responden terhadap keadaan kesihatan mental mereka. Kelulusan jawatankuasa etika institusi dan persetujuan bertulis peserta telah diperoleh sebelum kajian dimulakan. Pekali korelasi pangkat Spearman digunakan untuk menentukan perkaitan antara skor DASS. Seramai 462 responden telah diambil dalam kajian ini. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa responden mengalami tahap tekanan yang ringan (min=14.5 +±10.3), tahap keresahan yang sederhana (min= 12.1 +±10.0) dan tahap kemurungan yang ringan (min=11.9 + 10.8). Gejala utama yang diperhatikan ialah keletihan (68.4%), tenaga berkurangan (46.8%), dan pening (44.2%). Senaman (82.9%), penerapan kerohanian (81.2%) dan mengubah “cara saya berfikir tentang diri saya” (79%) adalah faktor utama yang dilaporkan membantu oleh responden untuk mengawal atau menyembuhkan keadaan mereka. Kajian itu melaporkan prevalens kemurungan, tekanan dan keresahan yang lebih tinggi dalam golongan yang lebih muda, wanita, India, bercerai/belum berkahwin dan responden yang berpendapatan bulanan rendah. Mengambil kira hasil kajian ini, adalah penting untuk membangunkan program kesihatan mental asas dan sekunder berasaskan bukti dan bersesuaian berasaskan komuniti.

Abstract

The rising prevalence of mental disorders and their impact on the global disease burden is an emergent public health concern. The present study was to assess the prevalence of depression, stress and anxiety level among the Malaysian community by using Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and identify their correlates by using the Belief of Depression Questionnaire (BDQ). The cross-sectional study was conducted among the Malaysian community through a convenient sampling method from October to December 2019. The DASS-21 and BDQ scales were used to explore the level of mental health and the respondents’ belief in their condition. The institutional ethics committee’s approval and participants’ written consent had been obtained before the commencement of the study. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between the DASS scores. A total of 462 respondents were recruited into the study. The outcomes revealed that the respondents fell into mild stress levels (mean=14.5 + 10.3), moderate levels of anxiety (mean= 12.1 +±10.0), and mild levels of depression (mean=11.9 + 10.8). The majorly observed symptoms were tiredness (68.4%), reduced energy (46.8%), and dizziness (44.2%). Exercise (82.9%), spirituality (81.2%), and changing “how I think about myself” (79%) were the majorly reported factors considered helpful by the respondents to control or cure their condition. The study reported a higher prevalence of depression, stress, and anxiety among the younger age group, females, Indians, divorced/ unmarried, and lower monthly income respondents. Considering the results, it is essential to develop evidence-based and suitable community-based primary and secondary mental health prevention programmes.